Saturday, August 28, 2010

Nota Kreativiti


Views and Perspectives

Intellectual Development

Cognitive development is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Cognitive development refers to how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his or her world through the interaction of genetic and learned factors. Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory.

1. Piaget

Piaget was interested in how children reacted to their environment. He see a child's knowledge as composed of schemas, basic units of knowledge used to organize past experiences and serve as a basis for understanding new ones. Schemas are continually being modified by two complementary processes that Piaget termed assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation refers to the process of taking in new information by incorporating it into an existing schema. In other words, people assimilate new experiences by relating them to things they already know. On the other hand, accommodation is what happens when the schema itself changes to accommodate new knowledge. According to Piaget, cognitive development involves an ongoing attempt to achieve a balance between assimilation and accommodation that he termed equilibration.

At the center of Piaget's theory is the principle that cognitive development occurs in a series of four distinct, universal stages, each characterized by increasingly sophisticated and abstract levels of thought. These stages always occur in the same order, and each builds on what was learned in the previous stage. They are as follows:

  • Sensorimotor stage (infancy): In this period, which has six sub-stages, intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Knowledge of the world is limited, but developing, because it is based on physical interactions and experiences. Children acquire object permanence at about seven months of age (memory). Physical development (mobility) allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbolic (language) abilities are developed at the end of this stage.
  • Pre-operational stage (toddlerhood and early childhood): In this period, which has two sub stages, intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a non-logical, non-reversible manner. Egocentric thinking predominates.
  • Concrete operational stage (elementary and early adolescence): In this stage, characterized by seven types of conservation (number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, and volume), intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops (mental actions that are reversible). Egocentric thought diminishes.
  • Formal operational stage (adolescence and adulthood): In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought. Only 35 percent of high school graduates in industrialized countries obtain formal operations; many people do not think formally during adulthood.

2. Vygotsky

Vygotsky believed that children are active seekers of knowledge, but he did not view them as solitary agents. Instead, he constructed a theory in which he believes that children learn through interactions with their surrounding culture.

He states that the cognitive development of children and adolescents is enhanced when they work in their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD for short). To reach the ZPD, children need the help of adults or more competent individuals to support them as they are learning new things. According to Vygotsky theory, children can do more with the help and guidance of an adult or other person more experienced person than they can do by themselves. The Zone of Proximal Development defines skills and abilities that are in the process of developing. The ZPD is the range of tasks that one cannot yet perform independently, but can accomplish with the help of a more competent individual. For example, a child might not be able to walk across a balance beam on her own, but she can do so while holding her mother’s hand. Since children are always learning new things, the ZPD changes as new skills are acquired.

A second feature of social experience that fosters children’s development is scaffolding. It refers to a changing quality of social support over the course of a teaching session or a structure or guidance of a more experienced person.

Adults who offer an effective scaffold for children’s independent mastery adjust the assistance they provide to fit the child’s current level of performance. There are many different ways of scaffolding, including breaking the task down into smaller steps, providing motivation, and providing feedback about progress as the person progresses. As time goes by, the adult will continually adjust the amount of support they give in response to the child’s level of performance. For example, as the child becomes more confident in her balance, her mother can go from holding both hands, to eventually holding one hand, and eventually she can stop holding her hand. The child will soon be able to walk unassisted. Therefore, scaffolding instills the skills necessary for independent problem solving in the future.

Emotional Development

1. Erikson

The stages of social/emotional development of children and adults identified by Erik Erikson are not “scheduled” in accordance with the development of the brain or other components of the body, as is the case with Piaget’s stages of intellectual development. Instead, successfully moving from one social/emotional stage to another is dependent on satisfactorily resolving the challenges connected with previous stage(s). Each stage brings on new and different issues resulting in what Erikson regards as a “psychosocial crisis.” When one level of “crisis” is adequately resolved a person is prepared to meet the challenges of the next level.

Erikson has identified eight stages to social and emotional development. At each level Erikson has identified one basic emotional struggle or "crisis." Each level includes a continuum between opposites -- what exists if the struggle is mastered and what exists if the struggle is not mastered. The levels are described below:

  1. Learning Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust (Hope)

This characteristic is usually worked on during the first and second year of a child's life. Depending on how the child is nurtured and cared for and loved, a foundation of trust, security, and optimism is developed. Of course, varying degrees of insecurity and mistrustfulness are developed when the child is not given the nurturing care that he or she needs at this stage.

  1. Learning Autonomy versus Shame (Will)

The second "psychosocial crisis" that Erikson identified generally occurs between 18 months and 4 years of age. This stage focuses on the development of the child's "will." People often hear the term "terrible twos" attached to this stage - a term reflecting some adults' view of the struggle. During this stage children begin to exert control over their environment, developing a sense of autonomy. The word "No" often becomes a regular staple of the child's vocabulary. If the child is "well-parented" and satisfactorily works out (resolves) this issue during this stage, she or he will emerge from this stage as a self-assured and proud child. However, if the child is not adequately parented she or he may emerge from this stage, to varying degrees, ashamed and unsure.

  1. Learning Initiative versus Guilt (Purpose)

The third stage generally occurs sometime during what Erikson calls the "play age," between 3.5 and about 5 years of age, before the child enters her or his first year of formal school. During this stage children develop their capacity for imagination, fantasy, and active play while learning how to cooperate with others, lead others, and follow the lead of others. Emerging from this stage strong in imagination, activity, and cooperation, is partly dependent on how well children resolve the previous two stages. A child without a strong foundation and without adequately resolving the specific challenges of this stage may become immobilized by guilt - fearful, attracted to the fringes of groups, heavily dependent on adults. In this case the child's development of her or his imagination and play skills is restricted.

  1. Learning Industry versus Inferiority (Competence)

The fourth stage is encountered primarily during the elementary school years and may include some junior high years. This stage focuses on the development of "formal skills" of life, skills that enable a child to succeed at activities that are governed by a relatively complex set of formal rules. Such skills are teamwork within a sport, organizing and completing homework, studying and mastering academic subject areas. Children who have adequately developed the attributes related to the previous stages will likely have the assets needed to meet the demands of this stage head on. However, this stage will be particularly difficult for the mistrusting child who has doubts about the future, or the child that feels shameful and guilty - who feels inferior, prone to defeat.

  1. Learning Identity versus Identity Diffusion (Fidelity)

The fifth stage generally occurs between the ages of 13 and 20. During this stage adolescents confront the difficult question of "Who am I?" This stage calls on adolescents to identify a self-image that satisfactorily represents themselves. This effort involves experimentation, and finding one's place within the world - often leading to rebellion, minor delinquency, and self-doubt. However, the adolescent that satisfactorily resolves this question will transform self-doubt and self-consciousness into self-certainty, develop a constructive identity (rather than a negative identity), and will expect to succeed. Adolescents who have not adequately mastered the previous stages will often falter, and become paralyzed with feelings of inferiority while having difficulty identifying and actualizing their role in the world.

In the U.S., Erikson believes, there is a tendency for middle and upper-class adolescents to experiment for a longer period than their counterparts, as their development is afforded a longer gestation before they are expected to make life-long decisions.

  1. Learning Intimacy versus Isolation (Love)

The sixth stage of Erikson's theory of social-emotional development generally occurs during the individual's life as a young adult. The focus of this stage is on the development of intimacy, developing a capacity for genuine and lasting friendship or marriage.

  1. Learning Generativity versus Self-Absorption (Care)

The seventh stage of social-emotional development is focused on the development of one's capacity for generosity and caring. The roles of marriage and parenthood demand this, as does working productively and creatively.

  1. Learning Integrity versus Despair (Wisdom)

The last stage of Erikson's development theory is focused on the development of integrity - confidence and social-emotional balance that enables a person to be proud and happy with their defined role in life. However, if even one of the previous stages is not appropriately resolved, this capacity for satisfaction is compromised and can lead to despair.

Multiple Intelligence

1. Gardner

Gardner defines intelligence as "the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting". Using biological as well as cultural research, he formulated a list of seven intelligences. This new outlook on intelligence differs greatly from the traditional view which usually recognizes only two intelligences, verbal and computational. The seven intelligences Gardner defines are:

  1. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

Consists of the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.

  1. Linguistic Intelligence

Involves having a mastery of language. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically. It also allows one to use language as a means to remember information.

  1. Spatial Intelligence

Gives one the ability to manipulate and create mental images in order to solve problems. This intelligence is not limited to visual domains. Gardner notes that spatial intelligence is also formed in blind children.

  1. Musical Intelligence

Encompasses the capability to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. (Auditory functions are required for a person to develop this intelligence in relation to pitch and tone, but it is not needed for the knowledge of rhythm.)

  1. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

It is the ability to use one's mental abilities to coordinate one's own bodily movements. This intelligence challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activities are unrelated.

  1. The Personal Intelligences

It includes interpersonal feelings and intentions of others and intrapersonal intelligence--the ability to understand one's own feelings and motivations. These two intelligences are separate from each other. Nevertheless, because of their close association in most cultures, they are often linked together.

Although the intelligences are anatomically separated from each other, Gardner claims that the seven intelligences very rarely operate independently. Rather, the intelligences are used concurrently and typically complement each other as individuals develop skills or solve problems. For example, a dancer can excel in his art only if he has 1) strong musical intelligence to understand the rhythm and variations of the music, 2) interpersonal intelligence to understand how he can inspire or emotionally move his audience through his movements, as well as 3) bodily-kinesthetic intelligence to provide him with the agility and coordination to complete the movements successfully.


Name Erickson’s 8 stages of social and emotional development and provide an example for each stage.

Explain Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development theory. Give examples on how to use the ZPD theory in teaching and learning arts to children.

List down Gardner multiple intelligence theory and provide examples and explanations for each intelligence.

1 comment:

Fid"s said...

nice info dude.
OK sometimes this in could be usefull for me and anyone else